The town was first settled in 1681 and was established near the Bound Brook stream of the same name, which flows into the Raritan River via the Green Brook on the eastern side of the borough.
A wooden bridge over the Raritan River was erected as early as 1761 and named Queen’s Bridge in 1767. Later, it became a covered bridge. During the American Revolutionary War the bridge was used repeatedly by both sides including during the Battle of Bound Brook in 1777. In 1875, the wooden bridge was replaced by a steel pipe truss bridge, which was itself replaced by a steel girder bridge in 1984, still using the old pillars. The bridge was renovated and paved in 2007.
The Battle of Bound Brook, one of the battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign during the American Revolutionary War, occurred on April 13, 1777, and resulted in a defeat for the Continental Army, who were routed by about 4,000 troops under British command.